[1], As a constitutional monarch, Leopold was charged with the usual constitutional duties of opening parliaments, greeting diplomats, and attending state funerals. Encyclopedia of the Age of War and Reconstruction), Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity. "Almost all of them", he wrote, "clamoured for expenses of all kinds, which included ... wine, tobacco, cigars, clothes, shoes, board and lodging, and certain nameless extravagances" (by which he meant attractive slaves to warm their beds). The countries competed with each other for supremacy. New York: Africana Publishing Company, 1986. Henry Morton Stanley, a British journalist, explored the river in 1877, but France acquired jurisdiction in 1880 when Pierre de Brazza signed a treaty with the Tio ruler. Four years before, the Zanzibaris had thought the Congo deadly and impassable, and warned Stanley not to attempt to go there, but when Tippu Tip learned in Zanzibar that Stanley had survived, he was quick to act. The publication of the 30-year independence plan, which stated that the development of a ruling elite in the Congo was a generation behind that of the British and French colonies, made the situation worse. Describe what part racism played in imperialism. They colonized Congo because the needed its resources like rubber to manufacture goods. Armies were sent to aid Kabila, most notably those of Angola and … By the end of the 19th century, the Basin had been carved up by European colonial powers, into the Congo Free State, the French Congo and the Portuguese Congo (modern Cabinda Province of Angola p.20. Having found the new ruler of the upper Congo, Stanley negotiated an agreement with Tippu Tip to allow him to build his final river station just below Stanley Falls (which prevented vessels sailing further upstream). [5], Stanley, much more familiar with the rigours of the African climate and the complexities of local politics than Leopold — Leopold II never set foot in the Congo — persuaded his patron that the first step should be the construction of a wagon trail and a series of forts. Describe 1 political motivation for imperialism National pride inside each country. It is clearly understood that in this project there is no question of granting the slightest political power to the negros. Setting out from Zanzibar, Henry Morton Stanley, a British-born American journalist and explorer aimed to find the famous Dr. Livingstone. When Stanley returned to Europe in 1878, he had not only found Dr. Livingstone (an event remembered to this day), resolved the last great mystery of African exploration, and ruined his health: he had also opened the heart of tropical Africa up to the outside world. “He never went to the Congo,” Laurent told Belgian outlet Sudpresse in an interview published Friday. During this period it remained in the clutches of colonialism. Since the 15th century, European explorers had sailed into the broad Congo estuary, planning to fight their way up the falls and rapids that begin only 100 miles (160 km) inland, and then travel up the river to its unknown source. The Belgian Congo was a colonial state from 1908 - 1960. Hochschild, Adam (October 6, 2005). Colonization of the Congo basin refers to the European colonization of the Congo Basin of tropical Africa. In later years, Stanley would write that the most vexing part of his duties was not the work itself, nor negotiating with the natives, but keeping order amongst the ill-assorted collection of white men he had brought with him as overseers, who squabbled constantly over small matters of rank or status. It had only been through Tippu Tip's help that Stanley had found Livingstone (who himself had survived years on the Lualaba by virtue of Tippu Tip's friendship). Congo Free State: A large state in Central Africa from 1885 to 1908 in personal union with the Kingdom of Belgium under Leopold II. It has been our purpose to fill this blank with life, to redeem this waste, to plant and sow that the dark man may gather, to vivify the wide, wild lands so long forgotten by Europe. PDF | On Jul 24, 2017, Hassan Mudane published Examination of the Impact of Colonialism in Congo | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate DR Congo is a vast country with immense economic resources and, until recently, has been at the centre of what some observers call "Africa's world war", with widespread civilian suffering the result. 3 1. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Cuba was colonized by Spain after the initial finding by Columbus and became an important export of plantation crops. In Brazzaville the currency is known as the Central African C.F.A., while in D.R.C. Historiography. Leopold's eventual response was extraordinary in its hubris and simplicity. Tippu Tip had raided 118 villages, killed 4,000 Africans, and, when Stanley reached his camp, had 2,300 slaves, mostly young women and children, in chains ready to transport halfway across the continent to the markets of Zanzibar. Colonization of the Congo. The conference was a sham: at its close, Leopold proposed that they set up an international benevolent committee to carry on, and modestly agreed to accept the chairman's role. They colonized Congo because the needed its resources like rubber to manufacture goods. [8] At the end of his physical resources, Stanley returned home, to be replaced by Lieutenant Colonel Francis de Winton, formerly a British Army officer. Apparently finding nothing reprehensible about Leopold's ambitions, Stanley set about his task with a will. ISBN 978-0299236441. Notes. ISBN 978-0-521-19421-1. Stanley explained his motivation: “As yet the Congo basin is a blank, a fruitless waste, a desolate and unproductive area . The state of Congo, the heart of Africa, was colonized by Leopold II, king of the Belgium from 1885 to 1908. 3. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2010. xiv + 342 pp. The King of Belgium Philip Leopold sent a letter to the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) President Felix Antoine Tshisekedi Tshilombo on Tuesday to apologize for the violent events which occurred while it colonized the region. Then there's Joseph Conrad's novel, Heart of Darkness. Harper & Row. Leopold noted, "Our frontiers can never be extended into Europe." He created a baffling series of subsidiary shell organisations, culminating in the cunningly named International African Association (French: Association internationale africaine), which had a single shareholder: Leopold himself. It was not until 1867 that the Congo was explored by Europeans, and even then it was not from the sea, but from the other side of the African continent. Being Colonized: The Kuba Experience in Rural Congo, 1880-1960. They could also cheaply receive slaves and ivory and sell it at a very high price making a huge profit. London, Curzon Press, p.27. It is at this point that Leopold II of Belgium took a part. The colonization of Belgium was only for Belgium’s and King Leopold’s interest and the people of Congo were treated as material objects and dehumanized. Belgium was one of the smallest European colonizers, who colonized the large country of Congo. Find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for Being Colonized: The Kuba Experience in Rural Congo, 1880-1960 (Africa and the Diaspora: History, Politics, Culture) at Amazon.com. In 1910, it was made part of the larger French Equatorial Africa. All failed. Belgian exploration and administration took place from the 1870s until the 1920s. Stanley was applauded, admired, decorated—and ignored. Colonization of the Congo basin refers to the European colonization of the Congo Basin of tropical Africa.It was the last part of the continent to be colonized. The Kingdom 'Hollandia' has never existed. Europe was less than keen on the idea: the great European scramble for Africa had not yet begun. Googleusercontent search. Retrieved September 22, 2017. So Belgium only colonized Congo to serve their own interest while brutally treating the natives. In Peter Forbath's words, Leopold was: A tall, imposing man ... enjoying a reputation for hedonistic sensuality, cunning intelligence (his father once described him as subtle and sly as a fox), overweening ambition, and personal ruthlessness. African countries were easy to conquer for the Euros so the Euros frowned upon them. . The Congo experienced a very stable period from 1945 to 1957, and for this reason leaders were unaware of the problems developing under the surface. In 1877, the European country Belgium and King Leopold colonized the Democratic Republic of Congo. Your ‘Ethiopia Was Colonized’ topic seems a little too much out of context & exaggerated. Then, rather than perish in the impenetrable country of the cascades, Stanley took a wide detour overland to come within striking distance of the Portuguese trading station at Boma on the Congo estuary. However, he added, "since history teaches that colonies are useful, that they play a great part in that which makes up the power and prosperity of states, let us strive to get one in our turn."[2]. Republic of the Congo - Republic of the Congo - The colonial era: By the early 19th century, the Congo River had become a major avenue of commerce between the coast and the interior. By the end of the 19th century, the Basin had been carved up by European colonial powers, into the Congo Free State, the French Congo and the Portuguese Congo (modern Cabinda Province of Angola). Being Colonized: The Kuba Experience in Rural Congo, 1880-1960. France and Belgium both colonized the Congo. 10 years ago. In 1877, the European country Belgium and King Leopold colonized the Democratic Republic of Congo. Create your own unique website with customizable templates. In 1958 the country votes to remain within the French Community, and in 1960 it becomes an independent state. One by one the other great mysteries had been explored: Though the Congo had been one of the first to be attempted, it remained a mystery. 1882–1960 : Flag. The current countries of Rwanda and Burundi were once colonized by the Germans, who named the region Ruanda-Urundi. Congo's leaders since independence have been marked by corruption and bad governance and have needlessly sought to blame their former coloniser, he told AP. Lv 6. Outside of the Cape of Good Hope and the Mediterranean coast, Europe had no African colonies of any significance. Henry Morton Stanley (2011). The Belgian Congo was a colonial state from 1908 - 1960. Congo français. Tippu Tip, the most powerful of the Zanzibari slave traders of the 19th century, was well known to Stanley, as was the social chaos and devastation that slave-hunting brought. Villages throughout the region had been burned and depopulated. Continue Reading. However, Leopold persisted and eventually Stanley gave in. The French Congo (French: Congo français) or Middle Congo (French: Moyen-Congo) was a French colony which at one time comprised the present-day area of the Republic of the Congo and parts of Gabon, and the Central African Republic. The Congo and the Founding of Its Free State: A Story of Work and Exploration. To avoid discovery, materials and workers were shipped in by various roundabout routes, and communications between Stanley and Leopold were entrusted to Colonel Maximilien Strauch. Belgium and the Congo, 1885–1980. Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices. At various times, he launched unsuccessful schemes to buy an Argentine province, to buy Borneo from the Dutch, rent the Philippines from Spain, or establish colonies in China, Vietnam, Japan, or the Pacific islands. He was a figure who, one might have had every reason to expect, would devote himself to maintaining his country's strict neutrality, avoiding giving offence to any of his powerful neighbours, and indulging his keenly developed tastes for the pleasures of the flesh, rather than one who would make a profound impact on history. Exhausted, Stanley returned to Europe, only to be sent straight back by Leopold, who promised him an outstanding assistant: Charles 'Chinese' Gordon (who did not in fact take up Leopold's offer but chose instead to go to meet his fate at Khartoum). French Congo was a state from 1880 - 1960. Paper. A case against King Leopold, though, was already being made a century ago. A cointegration analysis, CRE Working paper, n°02/10, juin 2010, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Colonization_of_the_Congo_basin&oldid=992769281, History of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Articles needing additional references from September 2017, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The fever-ridden mangroves of the lower Niger by the brothers, This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 00:21. By the time of independence two rival parties have emerged within the local territorial assembly. King Leopold II of the Belgians was interested in the making of colonies for securing the raw materials for his country which was then the second-most industrialized country in Europe. This was to be his most enduring legacy. Ewans, Martin (2002). "In the Heart of Darkness". After leaving Livingstone, Stanley sailed for 1,000 miles (1,600 km) down the Lualaba (Upper Congo) to the large lake he named Stanley Pool (now called Pool Malebo). When the 1860s explorers focused attention on Africa, Leopold schemed to colonise Mozambique on the east coast, Senegal on the west coast, and the Congo in the centre. In the Second Congo War, Uganda and Rwanda attempted to wrest much of the Democratic Republic of the Congo from Kabila's forces, and nearly succeeded. Get help on 【 Why Was Africa Colonized? Congo-Kinshasa and Congo-Brazzaville also use different national currencies. That would be absurd."[7]. [6], It was only at this point that Stanley was informed of the magnitude of Leopold's ambition: Stanley was not merely to construct a series of trading stations, he was to secretly carve out an entire nation. Belgium colonized the Congo 2. Belgium colonized Congo, for the same reasons the other European nations were carving up Africa. Within three years, his capacity for hard work, his skill at playing one social group off against another, his ruthless use of modern weaponry to kill opponents, and above all his relentless determination opened the route to the Upper Congo. It was first led by Sir Henry Morton Stanley, who explored under the sponsorship of King Leopold II of Belgium. European Atrocity, African Catastrophe: Leopold II, the Congo Free State and Its Aftermath. 】 on Graduateway Huge assortment of FREE essays & assignments The best writers! Arab vs. European: Diplomacy and war in Nineteenth-Century East Central Africa. In 1876, Leopold II sponsored an international geographical conference in Brussels, inviting delegates from scientific societies all over Europe to discuss philanthropic and scientific matters such as the best way to coordinate map making, to prevent the re-emergence of the west coast slave trade, and to investigate ways of sending medical aid to Africa. Travelers can also convert their money to Congolese francs, … He wrote articles, appeared at public meetings, lobbied the rich and powerful tirelessly; and always his theme was the boundless opportunity for commercial exploitation of the lands he had discovered or, in his own words, to "pour the civilisation of Europe into the barbarism of Africa". This article is about the European colonization of the Congo region. He was, nevertheless, an extremely minor monarch in the realpolitik of the times, ruling a totally insignificant nation, a nation in fact that had come into existence barely four decades before and lived under the constant threat of losing its precarious independence to the great European powers around it. Being Colonized: The Kuba Experience in Rural Congo, 1880–1960 - Ebook written by Jan Vansina. Repeated attempts to travel overland were repulsed with heavy casualties, accidents, conflicts with natives, and, above all, disease saw large and well-equipped expeditions got no further than 40 miles (64 km) or so past the western-most rapid, the legendary Cauldron of Hell. there are two main currencies with the most widely-used being the U.S. dollar. Livingstone had not been heard from in several years and was, in fact, exploring the upper reaches of a great navigable inland river called the Lualaba, which Livingstone hoped was connected to the Nile, but which turned out to be the upper Congo. Belgium also exploited the land and people of Ruanda-Urundi, the Belgian Congo's neighbor to the east. What were the three factors in which explaining how King Leopold of Belgium acquired an African empire in the Congo. The instructions were direct and to the point: "It is a question of creating a new State, as big as possible, and of running it. Many Congolese were sold into slavery or their right hands would be cut off while they were still alive. However, as he approached Stanley Falls at the junction between the Congo proper and the Lualaba (close to the general vicinity of Central Africa where he had found Livingstone six years before), it soon became clear that Stanley's men were not the only intruders. 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